Evans, F. B. Their definition was largely similar to Bugental’s, though interestingly they omitted the social dimension and added a rational one. Calkins found experimental psychology too cold and impersonal for her tastes, and found her mentor’s self-psychology far more rewarding. Developed the famous Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. New York: Plenum Press. In addition, Sullivan suggested a self-system of personal traits specific to the individual which often functioned as anxiety fighting mechanisms to protect that individual’s self-esteem. At his primate lab located at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Harlow performed a series of experiments in which infant monkeys were raised by surrogate “mothers.”. Presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention. Titchener is also known for coining the term empathy and for supervising the graduate studies of Margaret Floy Washburn, the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in Psychology. While not the dominant voice within academic psychology, Allport and others continued to articulate what might broadly be conceived of as the humanistic project during the 1930s and 1940s. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds. Field theory in social science. While Adlerian therapists might or might not identify themselves as humanistic per se, there was a clear overlap of ideology and sympathies (Hoffman, 1994). Hull is best remembered for his influence on behaviorism and his drive-reduction theory, but is also notable for his research on hypnosis and his emphasis on rigorous scientific methods. Personality: A psychological interpretation. Humanistic psychology maintained the importance of a holistic conception of human beings, their uniquely human context, the centrality of consciousness of self and others, the intentional, creative and goal-directed nature of humans, and the responsibility that exercising such choices entails. Maslow (1943) developed a hierarchical theory of human motivation. Conceptions of self and identity: A modern retrospective on Allport’s view. Historians might have readily deemed Adler a humanistic therapist with psychodynamic undercurrents, were it not for his having Freud as an early mentor. The first and second forces were behaviorism and psychoanalysis respectively. The researcher helped spark and interest in the topic of obedience and conformity, ultimately leading Milgram to perform his controversial experiment. A decade later, in an early attempt at establishing its history, Maddi and Costa (1972) defined humanistic psychology in terms of its understanding of personality, a revealing choice of terms in and of itself. Watts (1998) makes the case that Rogers’ core concepts of empathy and unconditional regard greatly resemble Adler’s concept of social interest and the importance it played in personal development in general and in psychotherapy in particular. This list is a short one but has photos and quotes of the celebrities expressing their non-theism. While his ideas were often controversial, his concept of the unconscious mind has had a deep and lasting influence on psychology. Had humanistic psychology permeated the culture so completely that the … As for Maslow, the budding humanist was inspired by conversations with Adler, Fromm and Horney, all of whom had fled the anti-Semitism of Germany for the safe harbor of New York City; a grateful Maslow recalled how he was there “when the wave of distinguished emigres arrived from Europe” (as cited in Maddi and Costa 2008, p. 130). In doing so he accurately detailed the unfortunate normality, that is to say, the universality of human prejudgment. In their Humanism in Personology: Allport, Maslow and Murray, Maddi and Costa (1972) offered this assessment: It would be surprising to find humanism only now entering personology, with its history of 70 years or more as a formal discipline. The Modern Humanists. This final stage seemed nothing less than a shift from self-preoccupation, which could risk narcissism if taken to extreme, to the more fully realized social interest of Alfred Adler. Some of the most famous psychologists in history made important contributions to our understanding of the human mind and behavior. But he continued to dialogue with McDougall in 1937, discussing aspects of human motivation, and repeatedly referenced his ideas in Personality: A psychological interpretation. However, there was genuine reason for despair. Humanists championed the idea that people are motivated by higher-order needs. The fact that one of the proposed names for the journal was Self-Psychology (DeCarvalho, 1990) underscores a conceptual lineage going back to James and Calkins. Allport referenced Calkins as an important voice for a personalistic construct of the self in the first edition of his Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937). There are any number of ways to connect these figures into a conceptual domain of what we would now characterize as humanistic beliefs and values. For members of non-dominant groups, part of increasing one’s realistic orientation as Maslow put it would be the recognition of the role dominant culture played in keeping them conforming and unaware. In fact, humanistic psychology has been so successful at influencing mainstream psychology and American culture that the field recently suffered what Maureen O'Hara, PhD, calls an "identity crisis." ), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. As such, this necessarily brief review of a wide range of psychological thinkers must remain suggestive at best, an opening point of discussion for considering the construction of a far richer history of humanistic psychology. Humanism - Humanism - The 14th century: During the 14th century, humanism strengthened, diversified, and spread, with Florence remaining at its epicentre. Pinker specializes in explaining the fields of psycholinguistics and visual cognition. In that pioneering work, James expressed his view that there were three levels or contexts to the self: This last is close to describing the soul, and was rejected by later psychologists. relationship. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction. My love of the history of psychology I can attribute directly to a wonderful professor at St. Olaf College. Humanism in personology: Allport, Maslow, and Murray. Calkins (1915) broke with the central tenets of the emerging empirical psychology, which argued that the subject matter of psychology should also be measurable and observable. McDougall wrote one of two definitive books on social psychology published in 1908. But Adler’s direct influence on Rogers and Maslow may be greater than Cain allows. It is illustrative to note the thoughts of Salvatore Maddi and Paul Costa on this matter. Studies in personal and social development. In my case, my own training and practice led me to adopt a psychotherapy that is a blend of humanistic and cognitive behavioral principles. If the search for antecedents to the self-actualizing and proactive paradigms of Rogers and Maslow is extended sixty years earlier, multiple candidates emerge. Like “Human decency is not derived from religion. As a philosopher and a psychologist, Calkins was firmly in agreement with a personalist perspective (Allport, 1937). Perhaps his greatest achievement was his work pioneering the use of factor analysis and multivariate analysis. ), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. Learn more about some influential thinkers in psychology including their lives, their theories, and their major contributions to psychology. History of Psychology, 1(1), 52-68. With his emphasis on human potential, Carl Rogers had an enormous influence on both psychology and education. A humanistic perspective as defined by Bugental (1963), Maddi and Costa (1972), and Cain (2001) can be found if the historian of psychology ceases to require a humanistic label. By the third edition of Personality, it was no longer necessary to reference Calkins at all, as the more philosophical shadings of James and Calkins were increasing seen as out of date. Hugo Münsterberg was a German psychologist and early pioneer of applied fields including industrial-organizational, forensic and clinical psychology. Like William James, Gordon Allport (1897-1967) was a longtime psychology professor at Harvard. George Washington had no way of knowing that the Baron von Steuben was a fraud. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Adlerian publication The Journal of Individual Psychology published several articles by Maslow and other humanistic therapists. An essentially genealogical study of psychological ideas may beg the question of where the author falls on this family tree and how that might in turn impact his analysis. No list of famous psychologists would be complete without an appearance by the eminent Sigmund Freud. Journal of Homosexuality, 4(3), 219-235. He noted the distress that could be created between a self-ideal and the experienced self. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1954. This list represents just a sampling of some of the famous psychologists who have an a major impact on the field. As for some of Gordon Allport’s American influences, he was an undergraduate of William James’ at Harvard. To boldly go where no brains have gone before. Reading, PA: Addison-Wesley. While Rogers, Maslow and other voices of the Third Wave are considered to be a powerful protest against the reductionism of behaviorism, Gordon Allport was doing much the same far earlier. Alfred Alder was an Austrian psychiatrist who is often considered one of the most influential thinkers in psychology. Edward Thorndike was an American psychologist who was associated with the school of thought known as functionalism along with other thinkers including Harvey Carr, James Rowland Angell and John Dewey. Watts, R. E. (1998). 2016. Rogers noted. Maddi and Costa go on to assert that Allport had been a strong proponent of humanistic constructs of personality since the 1930s. American Psychologist, 18, 63-567. At first, the infant makes no distinction between the animate and inanimate objects with which he interacts. Allport himself availed himself to the term proprium, by which he referenced various interlocking functions associated with the self, including the experiencing I, the experienced me, the bodily sense, and propriate striving or goal-directedness. Adler creatively explored concepts of self-esteem and its opposite, coining the term inferiority complex in the process. They argued that the humanistic assumptions towards human personality are that it is proactive, unified and organized (holistic) in structure, complex and individually unique, predominately rational, and future oriented (goal-directed). While Titchener served as a powerful force in psychology, the school of thought he helped establish did not survive long following his death in 1927. Who were the humanists at the time of Renaissance? Lewin, K. (1951). As early as 1939, Rollo May credited the influence of Adler and Rank on his thinking; by 1950 he also referenced Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan (Hoffman, 2003). The new humanism. His research on attachment and child development left a lasting impression on psychology, education, child care and parenting. What was the influence of these clinicians on the likes of pioneering humanists like Rollo May, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow? In terms of possible cross fertilization of humanistic ideas, an under-explored event is the International Symposium on Feelings and Emotions held in Springfield, Ohio in October 1927. Methodologically he argued that psychology as a profession overemphasized the pursuit of nomothetic norms that might be generalized across individuals. Researchers utilized a method known as introspection, which involved having trained observers describe the mental processes that occurred when they were presented with different stimuli. He also served as the president of the American Psychological Association and taught a number of other prominent psychologists including Mary Whiton Calkins and Edward C. Tolman. His most famous contribution was his discovery of classical conditioning, which continues to play a major role in our understanding of psychology and behavior to this day. But his published ideas on the subject had appeared as early as 1921 (Nicholson, 2003). He became one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society after Sigmund Freud extended an invitation, but he later became the first major figures to break away from Freud’s ideas. During the first murmurs of a more organized humanistic psychology, Gordon Allport (1955) clearly summarized the challenges of the last few decades: For two generations psychologists have tried every conceivable way of accounting for the integration, organization, and striving of the human person without having recourse to the postulate of a self. While there is no evidence that James was a direct influence on Alfred Adler’s ideas, Adler (1927) explicitly acknowledged there were important similarities to their ideas: “The nearest to the individual psychologists, and really their predecessors, are among the Americans—William James and Stanley Hall” (p. 121). The infant monkeys in Harlow’s experiments preferred the soft terrycloth mothers over the wire mothers, even when the latter served as the source of food. In very recent years the tide has turned … As if to make up for lost time, (psychologists) have employed ancillary concepts such self-image, self-actualization, self-affirmation, phenomenal ego, ego-involvement, (and) ego-striving… (p. 37). It is also interesting to note that William McDougall was on Allport’s dissertation committee and “must be counted among the important influences on Allport during this period” (Maddi and Costa, 1972, p. 126), though Nicholson (2003) notes that the relationship between them was sometimes hostile. (Eds. Was a professor at Brooklyn College. A history of the “third force” in psychology. McDougall regarded moral behavior on behalf of others that was motivated by a desire to please or not discomfort others as pseudo-altruism. In addition to being considered one of the founders of contemporary psychology, Wundt is also frequently referred to as the father of experimental psychology. Gordon Allport also shared with James, Calkins, and Adler a valuing of religious belief as an often positive influence on the individual (Nicholson, 2003). The field comprises a spectrum which merges at one end with soft disciplines like ethnology, sociology, and the helping professions, and at the other end with hard disciplines like genetics, endocrinology, and neuroscience. The philosopher and psychologist William James is widely regarded as the father of American psychology. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Allport, G. (1943). In attempting this genealogy of ideas, historian and James scholar Eugene Taylor cautions that “blithely drawing so many lines from James to the present” doesn’t necessarily prove “causal influences or links that could even be called a tradition” (Taylor, 1991, p. 67). While it might seem like a fairly simple and straightforward question, it turns out that there is actually a bit of controversy […], (Last Updated On: February 1, 2018)Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is an eight-stage theory that describes how personality develops and changes throughout the course of the entire lifespan. S. Rubin, C. Humphreys, in Encyclopedia of Mental Health (Second Edition), 2016. Maddi, S. R., & Costa, P. T. (1972/2008). This view was clearly expressed in his seminal work, Personality, and more forcefully argued in a 1943 essay published in Psychological Review entitled “The ego in contemporary psychology” (Baumeister, 1993). The thesis of this paper is that there are three clear historical threads that connect William James to the humanistic theorists of the 1950s and beyond. (1996). Among his famous accomplishments was the publication of the 1200-page text, The Principles of Psychology, which quickly became a classic. Calkins divided her labors between psychology and philosophy, reflecting the Harvard perspective that they were allied fields, enough alike that they could be housed in the same academic department. "1 On the face of it, it seems hard to believe that a psychological perspective that values the holistic nature of the self and proactive individual striving would disappear for decades at a time. Nonetheless, Sullivan’s ideas had a significant influence on developing psychologists, social workers and ministers. McDougall (1908) proposed a very experiential model of how an individual’s initial bodily sense of self or self-consciousness develops: The conception of the bodily self is in large part dependent on the development of the conception of things as persistent realities of the external world; and the conception of those things is in turn completed by the projection into it of the idea of self as a centre of effort, a cause of movement and of resistance to pressure. That same year, in January, Maslow, Rogers and other like-minded individuals met at the University of Florida for the First Annual Conference on Personality Theory and Counseling Practice (Hoffman, 1988). answered Feb 5, 2020 by Ujjawal01 (65.2k points) selected Feb 6, 2020 by Sujata01 . But embedded in his writings is a rich account of the role of selfhood in in his Principles of Psychology (1890). Many of the key figures discussed in this article were present at that conference, including Alfred Adler, William McDougall, and William Stern, as well as a notable German gestalt psychologist named Karl Buhler (Hoffman, 1994). James also contributed to functionalism, pragmatism, and influenced many students of psychology during his 35-year teaching career. This early viewpoint in psychology focused on breaking down human consciousness into the smallest possible elements. By 1919, Richard Cabot was moved to write: “The social worker is liable to disappointment when she tries to find textbooks on personality study. Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because th… Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 30(4), 45-53. The History of Humanistic Psychology. This can only occur when the individual lends personal emotion to what may be an abstract sense of one’s nation or one’s fellow man. While not everyone’s flavor of humanist (McDougall held some decidedly racist view), he figures into a continuity of humanistic thought nonetheless. His biographer cited several authors who argued convincingly that James’ ideas permeated Allport’s (Nicholson, 2003). By extension, James noted that an individual’s self-esteem could be improved by their succeeding more in life or, conversely, by attempting or expecting less. The Christian religion as a healing power: A defense and exposition of the Emmanuel movement. Adler did not emerge out of the American humanism of James, Calkins and Allport, nor would all of his followers wholeheartedly join the Third Wave of the 1950s and 1960s. Edward B. Titchener was an influential figure in the formative years of psychology. The self in recent psychology. Gordon Allport would also be present at a key gathering in the early 1960s when a more structured humanistic psychology movement took definitive shape. Among his many accomplishments include being elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1912. Individual psychology. After polio left him paralyzed in his left leg, Hull decided to switch his career ambitions from engineering to psychology. James wrote that “a man has as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him” (as cited in Jahoda, 2007, p. 139). Calkins, M. W. (1915). The drive for self: Alfred Adler and the founding of individual psychology. 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